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Antiadherents are a category of excipients that are used to prevent the powder granules from sticking to tablet punches, or to help protect tablets from sticking to each other.
Binders are a category of excipients that are used when the active pharmaceutical ingredients cannot be directly compressed to form a tablet and wet granulation must be used. Binders assist the powder or granules in clustering and may also impact the granule properties such as flow, handling, strength, solubility, compaction, or drug release.
Buffers are a category of excipients that are used to stabilize the pH of liquid formulations.
Coatings are a category of excipients that are used to protect the tablet ingredients from deteriorating due to light, moisture in the air, or the acidic environment of the stomach. Coatings are also used to mask the flavor of an unpleasant tasting tablet or to make the tablet/capsule easier to swallow. Enteric coatings are used to control where the drug will be released in the digestive tract or delay the release of active pharmaceutical ingredients.
Coloring agents are excipients used to give the drug a distinctive appearance. Colors are subdivided into dyes, inorganic pigments and natural colorants, and are subject to federal regulations, thus the current regulatory status of a given substance must be determined before its use.
Combination of Excipients
As the name suggests, it is a combination of other excipient categories. This specialized category provides multi-functionality properties to address more than one formulation need.
Diluents are a category of excipients that are used to adjust dosage level and tablet size. Diluents do not usually change the physical-chemical properties of the product, but when used in excess, can cause the product to be unstable and complicate the manufacturing process.
Disintegrants are a category of excipients that are used in tablet formulations to stimulate the breakup of the tablet into smaller pieces in an aqueous environment, thereby increasing the available surface area and promoting a more rapid release of the drug substance.
Emulsifiers are a category of excipients that are frequently used in pharmaceutical formulations to stabilize emulsions, or mixtures of two or more non-blendable liquids
Fillers are a category of excipients that are used to increase the dosage form, volume, or weight of a pharmaceutical product. Since most dosages only require a very small quantity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), fillers often comprise a significant percentage of the dosage form. As such, the physical and chemical properties of the fillers are key variables in the manufacturing and performance of the product, and must be tightly controlled and fully understood.
Flavoring agents are a category of excipients that are added to pharmaceutical formulations to mask unpleasant tasting active ingredients, which in turn increases the likelihood that a patient will complete a course of medication. Flavors may be natural or artificial and improve the desirable characteristics of taste, texture, and overall palatability.
Glidants are a category of excipients that are used to promote powder flow by reducing inter-particle friction and cohesion during the production of tablets and capsules. Glidants are used along with lubricants since glidants lack the ability to reduce die wall friction.
Humectants are a category of excipients that are used to control the moisture content of a topical pharmaceutical dosage form product. Humectants achieve this by increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient’s solubility, which in turn improves skin penetration and subsequently increasing the active ingredient’s activity time.
Lubricants are a category of excipients that are used to decrease friction between the pharmaceutical formulation particles and the tableting equipment contact surfaces. Lubricants are also used to prevent ingredients from clumping together, or sticking to the tablet punches or capsule-filling machine. They ensure tablet formation and ejection can occur with low friction between the solid and die wall.
Preservatives are a category of excipients that are used to protect APIs against a wide spectrum of microbes soluble in the formulation and ideally effective at low concentrations. Preservatives are inexpensive, non-toxic and non-sensitizing. They are also stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures.
Solubilizers are a category of excipients that are used for solubilizing active pharmaceutical ingredients with low solubility in order to obtain a homogenous, concentrated, clear, stable solution that will carry drugs. In pharmaceutical application, solubilization is fundamental, as one of the key stages of the API bioavailability is its solubility or dissolution in solvent.
Solvents are a category of excipients that are used in ointments and other topical products, such as antibacterial creams and corticosteroids. Solvents are used at the beginning of the process to manufacture the active ingredients, and as the drug is being transformed into its final form (whether cream, lotion or liquid) solvents are used as a medium for blending materials. Solvents also are used to help the final product achieve the proper viscosity or consistency.
Thickeners are a category of excipients that are used to increase the viscosity of a solution or liquid/solid mixture without substantially modifying its other properties.